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Peru (Spanish: Perú; Quechua: Perú; Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 28.7 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

The Peruvian population, estimated at over 30.475 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


  • Official Name: Republic of Peru
  • Government Type: Constitutional Republic
  • President: Ollanta Humala
  • Prime Minister: Juan Jiménez Mayor
  • Vice President: Marisol Espinoza
  • Capitol and Largest City: Lima (Population: 7,605,742)
  • Currency: Nuevo Sol
  • Demonyn: Peruvian
  • Official Language: Castilian
  • Population: 30,475,144
  • Population Density: 61.41 people/square mile (23.71 people/km2)
  • Gross Domestic Product: $286,466,353,600 USD
  • GDP per capita: $9,400
  • Land Area: 496,225 square miles (1,285,220 km2)
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