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Australia (officially the Commonwealth of Australia) is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.

For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups. After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from January 26th, 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were established.

On January 1st 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system which functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population almost of 30 million is concentrated mainly around the coasts of Australia.

A highly developed country and one of the wealthiest, Australia is the world's 12th-largest economy and has the world's fifth-highest per capita income. Australia's military expenditure is the world's 11th-largest. With the second-highest human development index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights. Australia is a member of the G20, OECD, WTO, APEC, UN, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS and the Pacific Islands Forum

Basic Information[edit | edit source]

  • Official Name: Commonwealth of Australia
  • Population: 29,979,657
  • Population Density: 3.45 people/km2
  • Gross Domestic Product (Nominal): $1.946 trillion USD
  • Gross Domestic Product (PPP): $1.736 trillion USD
  • GDP per capita: $64,910.69 USD/$57,905.94 USD
  • Currency: Australian Dollar
  • Demonym: Australian, Aussie
  • Form of Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • Land Area: 2,969,907 square miles (7,692,020 km2)
  • Capitol: Canberra
  • Largest City: Sydney
  • Language: English
  • Monarch: Queen Elizabeth II (through Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove)
  • Prime Minister: Malcolm Turnbull
  • Deputy Prime Minister: Barnaby Joyce
  • Chief Justice: Susan Kiefel
  • Senate President: Scott Ryan
  • House Speaker: Tony Smith
  • Motto: Advance Australia
  • National Anthem: Advance Australia Fair